• Audio Mixing Mastering

Mixing and Mastering: Industry Vocal Chain



1: Tune (AutoTune/ Melodyne)

Try AutoTune in graphic mode for more accurate and less T-Pain sounding correction


2: Remove Breaths (If Needed)

Plugin suggestion Iztope Nectar


3: De Esser (If Needed)

Plugin suggestion Waves Renaissance DeEsser


4: Subtractive EQ

High pass around 100 Hz. Cut between 150-300 Hz. Mud accumulates here & sounds often overlap in this frequency


5: Compressor 1

Suggestion Waves CLA-2A (optical compressor)

Shouldn’t be more than 3 DB of gain reduction. Only moving on the loudest peaks

The first compressor is used to capture extreme peaks


6: Compressor 2

Use more heavily than the first compressor.

Suggestion SSL E-Channel for a clean sound, or CLA-26

The analog option at the bottom of Waves plugins will often raise your noise floor by adding white noise. Generally, turn the analog mode off unless the analog signal contributes to your desired sound and texture


7: EQ Boost

Use after a compressor to avoid additive EQ triggering your compressor

A critical area to boost on thin sounding vocals is between 600-800 Hz giving the vocals more body

Suggested EQ: Waves SSL E or G Channel, Scheps 73, EQ-1A, Fabfilter pro Q2

Boost mid range frequency & brightness 2-3 Hz


8: Send to reverb

Always high pass reverb at 400-500 Hz

Separate AUX send

Send a little bit of vocals to 2 Reverbs

Little to each

Try side chaining the reverb to the kick or vocal itself. This makes the vocal duck and creates pumping


9: Spreading Vocals

Watch out for phase issues

Suggested plugin: Schwa CMX

This plug spreads vocal hard left, and hard right and detunes one by a few cense

Send to AUX


10: Delay

Bus to AUX

Use send on track, automate is so only specific words send to the delay


11: Saturation

Adds a bit of grit and character to vocal

Good for hip-hop vocals, and rock vocals. Not great for female vocals.

Can be added before or after compression


Inserts

Autotune

IZotope Breath

Subtractive EQ

Compressive -3db

Compression to shape

EQ

Safety Final High pass (Optional)


Bus:

Reverb (high pass 400-500 Hz, low pass 10,000Hz)

Delay

Spread and detune plugin example Schwa CMX


Optional:

Saturation


Compression:

Attack Fast: Kills transients, less punchy, less percussive


Attack Slow: (For Hip-Hip Slow to Medium attack) Keeps transients, more punchy, more percussive.


Vocal Comping: Take the best parts of each take and putting them into 1 track


The Proximity Effect: The closer you put a microphone to your mouth, you boost the mid and low frequencies. Mic’s have a direction characteristic where the closer you are to the mic, it will boost those lower mid frequencies around 200-300 Hz.


You can purposely push the peaks into red for analog sound on consoles. Typically, clipping in digital is avoided.


Cut bad frequencies out with EQ before adding a compressor. A compressor may compress the sound but also increase the perceived volume.


You don’t want to compress and make bad frequencies louder.


Optional: CUT MUD on mixes by using bell EQ to take out 250 Hz on the master channel

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